Dryburgh Abbey: main west door

Dryburgh Abbey © David Gill

In 1385 the English army under King Richard II sacked three of the monasteries along the line of Dere Street: these included Dryburgh and Melrose. The western entrance to the abbey church was rebuilt in the 15th century in part due to the award of properties by Richard III.

A window would have been placed immediately above the doorway.

Dryburgh Abbey © David Gill

Top 10 Heritage Sites for Norfolk

Grimes Graves
Galleries at the bottom of Pit 1 at Grimes Graves (2015) © David Gill

I have been thinking about my Top 10 heritage sites in Norfolk. This is very much a personal choice, and the locations are placed in (rough) chronological order. I have tried to include a variety of types of heritage site. How can you decide between Norwich Cathedral and Norwich Castle? Or between Felbrigg and Blickling? Castle Rising and Castle Acre?

Grime’s Graves. You can descend into the Neolithic flint mines.

Burgh Castle
The Roman fort at Burgh Castle © David Gill

Burgh Castle. One of the best preserved Roman forts of the Saxon Shore.

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Norwich Cathedral © David Gill

Norwich Cathedral. The cathedral is an architectural gem and dominates the city.

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Binham Priory © David Gill

Binham Priory. Part of the Benedictine priory is still in use as the parish church.

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Castle Rising © David Gill

Castle Rising. This well-preserved keep is dominated by a series of earthworks.

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Oxburgh Hall © David Gill

Oxburgh Hall. The moated hall at Oxburgh contains fabulous tapestries.

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Felbrigg Hall © David Gill

Felbrigg Hall. The 17th century front to the house is a gem.

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Holkham Hall © David Gill

Holkham Hall. One of the most magnificent houses and Grand Tour collections in Norfolk.

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North Norfolk Railway, Sheringham Station © David Gill

The North Norfolk Railway (The Poppy Line). The journey between Sheringham and Holt provides views of the coast as well as the Norfolk countryside.

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Sandringham © David Gill

Sandringham. The Royal residence sits in the middle of extensive landscaped grounds.

Melrose Abbey: danger sign

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Melrose Abbey © David Gill

This is a variant of the more usual, ‘Danger. Do not climb on the walls’ sign (e.g. Bury St Edmunds Abbey; Hadleigh Castle; Kirkham Priory; Lindisfarne Priory; Pickering Castle; Warkworth Castle). Lindsifarne also has, ‘Danger. Do not climb’.

Melrose Abbey: east processional doorway

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Melrose Abbey © David Gill

Access between the great cloister and the abbey church was by a processional doorway on the north side of the church. It was situated adjacent to the monks’ quire.

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Melrose Abbey © David Gill

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Melrose Abbey © David Gill

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Melrose Abbey © David Gill

The joist holes supported the roof covering the walkways round the cloister.

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Melrose Abbey © David Gill

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Melrose Abbey © David Gill

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Melrose Abbey © David Gill

Finchale Priory: Chapter House

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Finchale Priory © David Gill

The Chapter House lies in the middle of the east side of the cloister, underneath the Dorter. It has been dated to the late 13th century. Stone benches were placed around the outer walls. The prior’s seat was located in the centre of the east side; the central window behind it was blocked during the 15th century.

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Finchale Priory © David Gill

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Finchale Priory © David Gill

The Development of Guidebooks for Heritage Sites in England

StBotolph_OW
1917

These covers show the development from the first official guidebook (St Botolph’s) issued by the Office of Works through to English Heritage. These guides range from small booklets to concertina card guides.

For the development of guides in Scotland see here.

Pyx_Office_of_Works
1949

Scilly_green
1949 (repr. 1952)

Dartmouth_MW
1951 (repr. 1954)

corbridge_green_cov
1954

Osborne_MW
1955

Audley End
Audley End (1955)

Pevensey_green
1952 (repr. 1956)

 

Shap_MPBW
1963 (3rd impress. with amendments)

OldSarum_souv
1965

Goodrich_MPBW
1958 (5th impress. 1967)

Maison_Dieu_MPBW
1958 (3rd impress. with amendments 1967)

StantonDrew_MPBW
Revised 1969

Hetty_Pegler_DOE
1970

Aldborough_blue
1970

Helmsley_blue
1966 [3rd impress. 1971]

Saxtead_DOE_blue
1972

Glastonbury_DOE
(1973)

Egglestone_DOE
1958 (8th impress. 1976)

Totnes_DOE
1979

Stott_Park_DOE
1983

GrimesGraves_DOE_front
1984

Bayham_blue
1974 (1985)

Chysauster_EH_white
1987

EH_Orford_early
1964 (1982; English Heritage 1988; repr. 1975)

Middleham_EH_1993
1993

Portchester_EH
1990 (2000)

Tintagel_EH
1999 (repr. 2002)

Richborough_EH
(2012)

Furness_Piel_EH
1998 (rev. 2015)

Pendennis_StM_EH_red
2012 (2nd ed. 2018)

Furness Abbey: Guidebooks

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Furness Abbey © David Gill

The Cistercian abbey at Furness was established at the present site in 1127. It was placed in State Guardianship in 1923. The official guidebook was prepared by J.C. Dickinson in 1965. This contains a history, followed by an itinerary and description. A fold-out plan is placed inside the back cover.

Furness_MPBW
1965

The ‘blue guide’ continued into the 1980s as an English Heritage guide. It was replaced in 1998 by a new illustrated guide, combined with Piel Castle, by Stuart Harrison and Jason Wood; the section on Piel Castle was prepared by Rachel Newman. A fold-out plan of the abbey as well as its surrounding area is printed on the fold-out back cover.

Furness_Piel_EH
1998 (rev. 2015)

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Piel Castle © David Gill

Cambuskenneth Abbey: guidebook

Cambuskenneth_AMHB
1950 (repr. 1973)

Cambuskenneth Abbey, near Stirling, was founded in 1147.

The remains of the abbey were placed in State Guardianship in 1908. Stewart Cruden prepared the first guidebook in 1950; a second edition appeared in 1978. It consists of two parts: history and description. A plan is placed on the centre pages.

Arbroath Abbey: guidebook

Arbroath_blue
1954 (4th impress. 1972)

Arbroath Abbey was founded by William the Lion in 1178 in memory of Thomas Becket of Canterbury. Tironensian monks from Kelso helped to establish the community. The abbey was the setting for the Declaration of Arbroath on 5 April 1320.

The official guide is divided into two sections: a history by R.L. Mackie; and a description by Stewart Cruden. A conjectural reconstruction is placed in the centre, and a fold-out plan inside the back cover.

 

Augustinian Abbeys and Priories in State Care

South and South-East England

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The church of St Mary, Portchester © David Gill

Southwick Priory, Hampshire [EH]. The community dates to 1133 when it was established by Henry I at Portchester. The priory moved to its present site within the next two decades.

Bushmead Priory, Bedfordshire [EH]. Founded c. 1195.

East Anglia

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St Botolph’s Priory © David Gill

St Botolph’s Priory, Colchester, Essex [EH]. The Augustinian priory was founded c. 1100. It was probably one of the earliest foundations in England.

Waltham Abbey, Essex [EH]. The Augustinian priory was founded in 1177 and it later became an abbey.

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Creake Abbey, Norfolk © David Gill

Creake Abbey, Norfolk [EH]. The monastic site has its origins in 1206, although the Augustinian priory is later.

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St Olave’s Priory © David Gill

St Olave’s Priory, Norfolk [EH]. The priory was founded c. 1216.

Central England

Haughmond Abbey, Shropshire [EH]. The Augustinian abbey was founded in 1135.

Lilleshall Abbey, Shropshire [EH]. Founded around 1148.

White Ladies Priory, Shropshire (Augustinian canonesses) [EH]. This seems to have been founded in 1186.

 

Wales

Llanthony Priory, Gwent [Cadw]. The priory was established c. 1118.

Penmon Priory, Anglesey [Cadw]. The monastic community became an Augustinian priory in the 13th century.

North-East and Yorkshire

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Gisborough Priory © David Gill

Gisborough Priory, Yorkshire [EH]. There are two foundation dates in 1119 and 1129.

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Kirkham Priory © David Gill

Kirkham Priory, Yorkshire [EH]. Founded by Walter l’Espec c. 1122, probably on the site of an earlier foundation.

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Brinkburn Priory © David Gill

Brinkburn Priory, Northumberland [EH]. Founded by William Bertran between 1130 and 1135.

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Thornton Abbey © David Gill

Thornton Abbey, Lincolnshire [EH]. Founded in 1140.

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Lanercost Priory © David Gill

Lanercost Priory, Cumbria [EH]. The traditional foundation date of the priory is 1169 in memory of Hubert de Vaux.

Scotland

Holyrood, Midlothian [HES]. The Augustinian abbey was founded by King David I in 1128.

Restenneth, Angus [HES]. The Augustinian priory was established  by King David I.

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St Andrews © David Gill

St Andrews, Fife [HES]. The Augustinian foundation dates to c. 1130.

Jedburgh, Roxburghshire [HES]. The Augustinian priory was founded here in 1138 by King David I. This became an abbey in 1154.

Cambuskenneth, Stirlingshire (Augustinian of Arrouaise) [HES]. Founded around 1140 by King David I.

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Inchmahome Priory © David Gill

Inchmahome Priory, Perthshire [HES]. The priory was founded c. 1238 by the Earl of Menteith.

 

 

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