Heritage Tourism and Greece

Knossos © David Gill

Greece will be re-opening to tourists and dropping quarantine regulations (“Greece reopens cafes, island ferries“, ekatherimini.com 25 May 2020). There is concern that Spain and Portugal will try to attract tourists from Germany (Ilias Bellos, “Greece battling Spain, Portugal for German tourists“, ekatherimini.com 26 May 2020).

These are particular challenges for Greece. Tourists from Germany, the UK, France and Italy were the main national groups bringing over 8 million visitors (in 2015). Tourists from the UK have yet to be given clearance to travel to Greece and that group is worth in the region of $750 million to the economy of Greece. Heritage tourism to a region like the Argolid is worth over $230 million to the local economy. Knossos on Crete is at the heart of one of the nation’s most popular destinations. Heritage in Greece is a major asset for the tourist economy and needs to be protected until tourist numbers can increase and generate the much needed income for the sector.

Academic journals: Journal of Heritage Tourism

Journal summary: JHT focuses on exploring the many facets of one of the most notable and widespread types of tourism. Heritage tourism is among the very oldest forms of travel. Activities such as visits to sites of historical importance, including built environments and urban areas, rural and agricultural landscapes, natural regions, locations where historic events occurred and places where interesting and significant living cultures dominate are all forms of heritage tourism. As such, this form of tourism dominates the industry in many parts of the world and involves millions of people.
During the past 20 years, the study of tourism has become highly fragmented and specialised into various theme areas, or concentrations. Within this context, heritage tourism is one of the most commonly investigated forms of tourism, and hundreds of scholars and industry workers are involved in researching its dynamics and concepts. This academic attention has resulted in the publication of hundreds of refereed articles in various scholarly media, yet, until now there has been no journal devoted specifically to heritage tourism; Journal of Heritage Tourism was launched to fill this gap.
JHT seeks to critically examine all aspects of heritage tourism. Some of the topics to be explored within the context of heritage tourism will include colonial heritage, commodification, interpretation, urban renewal, religious tourism, genealogy, patriotism, nostalgia, folklore, power, funding, contested heritage, historic sites, identity, industrial heritage, marketing, conservation, ethnicity, education and indigenous heritage.

Publisher: Routledge

Website: https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rjht20/current

Access: Subscription; some open access

Journal type: Academic peer-reviewed

Leading Visitor Attractions 2018: National Trust

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Waddesdon Manor © David Gill

The figures for Leading Visitor Attractions in 2018 have been published. The top National Trust sites are:

  • Giants Causeway [35]: 1,011,473 [+2.7%]
  • Clumber Park [59]: 657,443 [+4%]
  • Carrick-a-Rede [72]: 491,947 [+13%]
  • Attingham Park [73]: 484,581 [+4%]
  • Cliveden [74]: 483,754 [-1%]
  • Waddesdon Manor [77]: 466,158 [-0.86%]
  • Belton House [83]: 422,682 [-5%]
  • Stourhead [86]: 393,779 [+3%]
  • Fountains Abbey Estate [88]: 388,500 [-8%]
  • Calke Abbey [90]: 384,561 [-1%]
  • Mottisfont [92]: 376,043 [+3%]
  • Anglesey Abbey [93]: 370,506 [-5%]
  • Nymans Garden [99]: 354,502 [+4%]
  • Kingston Lacy [101]: 353,653 [+9%]
  • St Michael’s Mount [103]: 347,773 [-1%]
  • Polesden Lacey [104]: 347,149 [-2%]
  • Dunham Massey [110]: 310,093 [+7%]
  • Sheffield Park [111]: 306,692 [+8%]
  • Wimpole Estate [113]: 304,191 [-12%]
  • Tyntesfield [116]: 301,765 [-3%]
  • Hardwick Hall [119]: 285,379 [+2%]
  • Lanhydrock [120]: 273,149 [+4%]
  • Killerton [121]: 267,383 [+7%]
  • Bodnant Garden [125]: 254,227 [+1%]
  • Ickworth [126]: 254,073 [-7%]
  • Dyrham Park [127]: 251,631 [0%]
  • Chartwell [128]: 246,336 [+3%]
  • Quarry Bank [130]: 240,277 [-5%]
  • Corfe Castle [131]: 237,992 [-4%]
  • Wallington [132]: 236,825 [+1%]
  • Cragside Estate [133]: 236,672 [+3%]
  • Mount Stewart [137]: 226,577 [+4%]
  • Baddesley Clinton [140]: 221,703 [+1%]
  • Trelissick [141]: 214,034 [+7%]
  • Saltram [146]: 209,755 [+7%]
  • Stowe [147]: 208,644 [-1%]
  • Charlecote Park [148]: 208,289 [-5%]
  • Dunster Castle [150]: 204,625 [-2%]
  • Speke Hall [151]: 204,134 [+6%]
  • Shugborough Estate [152]: 203,652 [+27%]
  • Packwood House [153]: 202,114 [-8%]

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Stowe © David Gill

Leading Visitor Attractions 2018: English Heritage

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The figures for Leading Visitor Attractions in 2018 have been published. The top English Heritage sites are:

  • Stonehenge [20]: 1,555,868 [-1.7%]. 2017: 1,582,532 [+14.5%]
  • Dover Castle [95]: 365,462 [-3.8%]. 2017: 379,740 [+13.9%]
  • Osborne [112]: 304,927 [-1.3%]. 2017: 308,861 [+16.1%]
  • Tintagel Castle [135]: 230,584 [-6.3%]. 2017: 246,039 [+7.1%]
  • Carlisle Castle [158]: 177,247 [+285.4%]
  • Audley End House and Gardens [160]: 170,042 [-5.1%]. 2017: 179,167 [+8.1%]
  • Clifford’s Tower, York [163]: 154,701 [+0.4%]. 2017: 154,135 [+5.1%]
  • Whitby Abbey [165]: 147,566 [-11.3%]. 2017: 166,362 [+9.6%]
  • Kenwood [171]: 131,126 [-8.6%]. 2017: 143,490 [+6.8%]
  • Wrest Park [172]: 128,980 [-5.9%]. 2017: 137,131 [+10.3%]
  • Carisbrooke Castle [174]: 125,664 [-0.7%]. 2017: 126,584 [-0.3%]
  • 1066 Battle of Hastings, Abbey and Battlefield [176]: 123,870 [+0.5%]. 2017: 123,220 [-10.6%]
  • Eltham Palace and Gardens [180]: 110,034 [+0.5%]. 2017: 109,501 [+12.5%]
  • Kenilworth Castle [181]: 110,012 [-6.8%]. 2017: 118,090 [+9.3%]
  • Housesteads Roman Fort [182]: 109,675 [+0.9%]. 2017: 108,660 [+6.5%]
  • Walmer Castle and Gardens [184]: 103,905 [-4.7%]. 2017: 109,005 [+18.8%]

Overall English Heritage seems to have been attracting fewer visitors during 2018.

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Eltham Palace © David Gill

Leading Visitor Attractions 2018: National Trust for Scotland

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Broughton House © David Gill

The details of the Leading Visitor Attractions for 2018 are now available.  The National Trust for Scotland locations are:

  • Glenfinnan [89]: 385,352 [-2.8%]. 2017: 396,448 [+57.8%]
  • Culzean Castle & Country Park [91]: 382,608 [+56.2%]. 2017: 244,930 [+11.6%]
  • Burns Birthplace Museum [122]: 266,36  [+62.1%]. 2017: 164,316 [+1.2%]
  • Brodie Castle [124]: 256,666 [+21.8%]
  • Glencoe [142]: 213,343 [+29.1%]
  • Culloden [143]: 213,343 [+10.9%]. 2017: 180,875 [+27.6%]
  • Crathes Castle [173]: 127,695 [+4.8%]. 2017: 121,841 [+23.7%]
  • Threave Castle [186]: 96,357 [+1.5%]
  • Inverewe Gardens [192]: 80,913 [-57.8%]. 2017: 191,951 [+109.6%]
  • Newhailes [199] 68,360 [+1168.7%]
  • Pollok House [205]: 57,172 [+5.1%]
  • Fyvie Castle [207]: 56,158 [-0.2%]
  • Drum Castle [208]: 50,421 [+8.3%]. 2017: 46,574 [-3%]
  • Falkland Palace [211]: 46,475 [-8.4%]. 2017: 50,726 [+15.1%]
  • Bannockburn [212]: 45,208 [-18.3%]. 2017: 55,347 [+7.9%]
  • Pitmedden Garden [213]: 41,694 [-3.1%]. 2017: 43,045 [+17.9%]
  • Brodick Castle & Country Park [216]: 39,708 [-10.4%]. 2017: 44,361 [-38.1%]
  • Georgian House [222]: 33,450 [-11.3%]
  • Ben Lawers Visitor Centre [229]: 24,728 [-12.3%]
  • Culross Palace [230]: 24,445 [+52.6%]
  • Craigievar Castle [232]: 19,702 [+15.6%]
  • Leith Hall [233]: 19,332 [-1.8%]
  • Tenement House [237]: 17,053 [-5.3%]
  • Kellie Castle [238]: 17,003 [+5.8%]
  • Broughton House & Garden [239]: 16,843 [+8.2%]
  • Greenbank Garden [240]: 16,327 [+2.4%]
  • Hill House [243]: 12,150 [-57.4%]. 2017: 28,518 [+6.2%]
  • Geilston Garden [244]: 12,110 [+17%]
  • Gladstones Land [245]: 11,670 [-3.2%]. 2017: 12,061 [-44.7%]

There is wider coverage of NTS in the ALVA figures for 2018. Bannockburn’s visitor numbers are a surprise given the increase in HES numbers for Stirling Castle.

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Glenfinnan © David Gill

Leading Visitor Attractions 2018: Historic Environment Scotland

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Linlithgow Palace © David Gill

The figures for the Leading Visitor Attractions 2018 are now available. There are a number of sites in the care of Historic Environment Scotland:

  • Edinburgh Castle [12]: 2,111,578 [+2%]. 2017: 2,063,709 [+16%]
  • Stirling Castle [63]: 605,241 [+7%]. 2017: 567,259 [+18%]
  • Urquhart Castle [69]: 518,195 [+6%]. 2017: 488,136 [+23%]
  • Glasgow Cathedral [75]: 482,783 [+24%]. 2017: 389,101 [+36%]
  • Doune Castle [170]: 142,091 [+14%]. 2017: 124,341 [+38%]
  • Skara Brae [179]: 111,921 [+2%]. 2017: 110,028 [+18%]
  • Linlithgow Palace [187]: 94,718 [+9%]. 2017: 86,596 [+16%]
  • St Andrews Castle [188]: 91,302 [+1%]. 2017: 90,617 [+18%]
  • Fort George [198]: 71,906 [-5%]. 2017: 75,798 [+24%]
  • Iona Abbey [200]: 64,183 [-3%]. 2017: 66,224 [+2%]
  • Blackness Castle [203]: 58,388 [+36%]. 2017 42,810 [+42%]
  • Melrose Abbey [204]: 58,286 [-1%]. 2017:  58,989 [+11%]
  • St Andrews Cathedral [206]: 56,249 [-4%]. 2017:  58,395 [+26%]
  • Tantallon Castle [213]: 43,170 [-14%]. 2017: 49,955 [+17%]
  • Elgin Cathedral [217]: 39,398 [+3%]. 2017: 38,201 [+25%]
  • Craigmillar Castle [220]: 35,442 [+13%]. 2017: 31,269 [+35%]
  • Caerlaverock Castle [221]: 35,305 [-8%]. 2017: 38,540 [+8%]
  • Dirleton Castle [224]: 29,764 [-2%]. 2017: 30,219 [+8%]
  • Dumbarton Castle [226]: 28,546 [+6%]. 2017: 27,033 [+12%]
  • Maeshowe [228]: 28,414 [+11%].

Iona
Iona © David Gill

Ministry Guidebooks from 1955

Caernarvon Castle
(1961)

My study of Ministry Souvenir Guidebooks has appeared in the latest number of the Journal of Public Archaeology (2018).

Abstract
The first formal guidebooks for historic sites placed in state guardianship in the United Kingdom appeared in 1917. There was an expansion of the series in the 1930s and 1950s. However from the late 1950s the Ministry of Works, and later the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works, started to produce an additional series of illustrated souvenir guides. One distinct group covered Royal Palaces: The Tower of London, Hampton Court Palace, Queen Victoria’s residence of Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, and Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh. This was followed by guides for the archaeological sites such as Stonehenge and Avebury, the Neolithic flint mines at Grime’s Graves, the Roman villa at Lullingstone, and Hadrian’s Wall. In 1961 a series of guides, with covers designed by Kyffin Williams, was produced for the English castles constructed in North Wales and that now form part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of ‘Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd’. These illustrated guides, some with colour, prepared the way for the fully designed guides now produced by English Heritage, Cadw, and History Scotland.

‘The Ministry of Works and the Development of Souvenir Guides from 1955’, Public Archaeology (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14655187.2017.1484584

Austerity, Heritage, and Tourism

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David Gill will be giving a lecture on ‘Austerity, heritage and tourism: UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Greece’ as part of the Edmund Lecture Series for 2017/18. The lecture will be in Suffolk House, Bury St Edmunds on Wednesday 18 April 2018 at 6.00 pm.

Abstract

Tourism is a significant part of the Greek economy and an important counterbalance to austerity. There are 18 UNESCO cultural and two mixed World Heritage Sites (WHS) in Greece. They range from the Bronze Age site of Mycenae, through the Classical site of Olympia, to the Medieval City of Rhodes. These locations stand alongside a rich range of archaeological and heritage sites as well as museums that serve as a repository for the finds. This lecture will review the value of these UNESCO recognised sites as focal points for tourist activity. This overview will be presented against the wider visitor figures for other archaeological sites and museums in the care of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. This information will be mapped onto the wider visitor data for Greece, and contributes to the discussion over the economic impact of World Heritage Sites for local economies as well as the wider economy of Greece. The lecture will explore the likely impact of Brexit on the Greek tourist economy, and opens a wider discussion of why the UK Government should value our own UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

[Details]

Leading Visitor Attractions 2017: Historic Environment Scotland

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Dirleton Castle © David Gill

The figures for the Leading Visitor Attractions 2017 are now available. There are a number of sites in the care of Historic Environment Scotland:

  • Edinburgh Castle [12]: 2,063,709 [+16%]
  • Stirling Castle [63]: 567,259 [+18%]
  • Urquhart Castle [70]: 488,136 [+23%]
  • Glasgow Cathedral [84]: 389,101 [+36%]
  • Doune Castle [170]: 142,091 [+14%]. 2017: 124,341 [+38%]
  • Skara Brae [173]: 110,028 [+18%]
  • St Andrews Castle [186]: 90,617 [+18%]
  • Linlithgow Palace [187]: 86,596 [+16%]
  • Fort George [192]: 75,798 [+24%]
  • Iona Abbey [196]: 66,224 [+2%]
  • Melrose Abbey [198]: 58,989 [+11%]
  • St Andrews Cathedral [199]: 58,395 [+26%]
  • Tantallon Castle [207]: 49,955 [+17%]
  • Blackness Castle [213]: 42,810 [+42%]
  • Caerlaverock Castle [214]:38,540 [+8%]
  • Elgin Cathedral [215]: 38,201 [+25%]
  • Craigmillar Castle [218]: 31,269 [+35%]
  • Dirleton Castle [219]:30,219 [+8%]
  • Dumbarton Castle [222]: 27,033 [+12%]
  • Jedburgh Abbey [223]: 26,906 [+13%]

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Fort George © David Gill

Leading Visitor Attractions 2017: National Trust for Scotland

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Glenfinnan © David Gill

The details of the Leading Visitor Attractions for 2017 are now available.  The National Trust for Scotland locations are:

  • Glenfinnan [81]: 396,448 [+57.8%]
  • Culzean Castle & Country Park [124]: 244,930 [+11.6%]
  • Inverewe Gardens [139]: 191,951 [+109.6%]
  • Culloden [145]: 180,875 [+27.6%]
  • Burns Birthplace Museum [155]: 164,316 [+1.2%]
  • Crathes Castle [171]: 121,841 [+23.7%]
  • Bannockburn [201]: 55,347 [+7.9%]
  • Falkland Palace [205]: 50,726 [+15.1%]
  • Drum Castle [208]: 46,574 [-3%]
  • Brodick Castle & Country Park [210]: 44,361 [-38.1%]
  • Pitmedden Garden [212]: 43,045 [+17.9%]
  • Hill House [220]: 28,518 [+6.2%]
  • Gladstones Land [235]: 12,061 [-44.7%]

There are two notable changes: Glenfinnan has rocketed to the top of the NTS list, and Inverewe has risen from no. 181. Inverewe’s popularity is probably its situation on the designated Scottish coastal drive NC500.

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Culloden © David Gill

NTS figures for: