Excavations at the Panhellenic sanctuary of Isthmia in the Peloponnese uncovered remains of the balbides starting-gate from the stadion. There were a sixteen starting-gates (on the right of the picture) that were controlled by strings that passed along grooves leading to the pit where the ‘starter’ was positions. The gate ‘system’ appears to date to the 5th century BC, although its use may have been limited.
The Ptolemaic fortified base of Arsinoe in the Peloponnese is located on the eastern side of the Methana peninsula, facing the island of Poros. The base was located on the Nissaki, joined to the peninsula by a narrow spit. Beyond it, and to the south, was an inlet that contained (according to an inscription relating to a boundary dispute) Ptolemaic naval installations, a drag way, as well as tunny traps. This was adjacent to the narrow isthmus that joins the peninsula to the Troezenia.
For further details about the base see here (“Arsinoe in the Peloponnese: the Ptolemaic base on the Methana peninsula”).
The fourth century BC city of Messene is surrounded by some of the most impressive surviving examples of Greek walls. The walls were protected by a series of towers that were used for artillery.
The foundation was in 369 BC, and brought together Messenian communities that had been dispersed at the end of the fifth century BC.
The temple of Despoina at the site of Lykosoura lies high in the mountains of Arkadia. It appears to have been constructed in the late 3rd century BC. There is a Doric facade at the east end. The base for the cult statues lies at the west end. The sculptor was Damophon of Messenia.
Excavations recovered some of the sculptures that are now in the National Museum in Athens.
A door lies on the south side. This faces a series of steps placed on the steep bank. It is possible that this was an area for those observing the rituals.
One of my favourite archaeological sites is the ‘Palace of Nestor’ in the western Peloponnese overlooking Pylos. The Bronze Age palace contained a major archive of clay tablets written in Linear B that provide significant insights into the arrangements of Messenia in the Late Bronze Age.
Much of the site is protected by a specially constructed covering.