Inscription from Lympne © David Gill
This altar was discovered in April 1852, subsequent to the 1850 excavations of the east gate of the Roman fort at Lympne in Kent (RIB 66). The inscription shows that it was a dedication to the god Neptune, set up by L. Aufidius Pant(h)era who was serving as the praefectus of the British fleet, clas(sis) Brit(annicae).
Pant(h)era, from Umbria, served as prefect in a cavalry unit in Upper Pannonia and is named in a diploma dated to 2 July 133. He probably moved to Britannia subsequent to this date.
It appears that the altar was reused in the later Saxon Shore fort, probably dating to the second half of the third century. The altar was purchased by the British Museum from Charles Roach Smith in 1856 (inv. 1856.07-01.5026).
Portchester Castle © David Gill
Portchester Castle consists of a Late Roman Saxon Shore fort, with a Medieval castle and church placed within its walls. It was placed in Statue Guardianship in 1926 and Sir Charles Peers wrote the first official guidebook in 1933.
1965 (3rd impress. with amendments, 1969)
Stuart E. Rigold revised Peers’ text in a 3rd edition of the text (1965). This was divided into two main parts: a history and a description. The description included sections on the Roman fortress, the medieval castle, and the church (for an Augustinian priory). There are two fold-out plans inside the back cover: the Roman fort, and a plan of the medieval castle.
The new English Heritage guide was prepared by Julian T. Munby (who had excavated on the site with Barry Cunliffe). This contains two tours: The Medieval Castle, and the Outer Bailey and Roman Fort. These are followed by a history of the castle including the Roman fort and the Saxon settlement. The guide has numerous reconstruction drawings and photographs. The centre pages provide an overview of the whole castle.
2003 (2nd ed. 2008, rev. reprint 2011)
The current English Heritage guidebook is by John Goodall. It contains a tour followed by a history, with special sections on ‘Building the Roman Fort’ and ‘Prisoners of War’. There are plans of the fort and the different levels of the castle on a foldout plan inside the back cover.
Reculver © David Gill
The Saxon Shore fort of Reculver in Kent is in the care of English Heritage. Parts of the Roman fort has been eroded into the sea. In the 7th century the fort became the site for the foundation of an Anglo-Saxon minster. The site was placed in Site Guardianship in 1950.
Stuart E. Rigold wrote a short guide to the site in 1971. This followed the format of the DOE concertina card guides (see also Hardknott Roman fort; Hetty Pegler’s Tump). There are 6 columns of text (the fort, the minster) on one side (with a small plan of the fort and church), a series of images including a plan of the 7th-15th century ecclesiastical structures.
The present English Heritage guide by Tony Wilmott covers the two Saxon Shore forts in Kent, Reculver and Richborough.
Reculver, Late Roman walls © David Gill
One of the Late Roman Saxon Shore forts in Kent was located at Reculver. Although the northern parts of the fort have eroded into the sea, the line of the walls can be traced on the landward side, especially to the east.
Pevensey Castle © David Gill
Pevensey Castle was given to the Office of Works by the Duke of Devonshire in 1925. It became one of the front line defences of Britain in 1940.
Pevensey Castle was one of the Saxon Shore forts and was later reused as a medieval castle.
For guidebooks to the fort and castle see here.
1952 (rev. with additions 1963)
Sir Charles Peers prepared the guidebooks for two of the Saxon Shore forts that had been reused as medieval castles: Portchester Castle in Hampshire and Pevensey Castle in Sussex.
The guide is divided into two main sections: history and description. There is a foldout plan inside the back cover. Peers describes the nature of the Saxon Shore forts and some of their reuse. He continues with the granting of the site to the half-brother of William the Conqueror.
Peers notes the use of the fort during the Second World War including the insertion of pill-boxes and a blockhouse to protect against tanks: ‘By the grace of God these twentieth-century defences were never put to the test’.
The Department of the Environment (DOE) enhanced the former ‘paper’ guides issued by the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works (e.g. Lullingstone Roman Villa; Tretower) by adding a ‘blue’ masthead. These were published alongside the fuller blue guidebooks (e.g. Stonehenge and Avebury; Bury St Edmunds Abbey). An example of this is provided by the 1978 (2nd ed.; reset 1983) guide to Richborough Castle by J. P. Bushe-Fox (Edinburgh: HMSO; price, 20p). This consists of 8 pages with a short history of the site and then a longer description. There is a single plan showing the different phases of the site. It is worth noting that the site was known as “Richborough Castle” whereas English Heritage now calls it “Richborough Roman Fort and Amphitheatre“. This DOE guide had its origins in the 1933 Office of Works guide to Richborough Castle (reprinted 1936) at 33 pages.
The DOE guide was published alongside two separate guides for “The Saxon Shore” that placed Richborough alongside the other forts under state guardianship: Portchester, Pevensey, Dover Castle (with the Roman lighthouse), Reculver, and Burgh Castle.
The present English Heritage guide by Tony Wilmott covers both Richborough and the nearby fort of Reculver. This has 48 pages along with fold out plan of Richborough and site guides for Richborough and Reculver.