In 2019 there were 5.89 million visits to museums in Greece, worth over 23 million Euros in receipts. The two museums with the highest number of visitors are the New Akropolis Museum (with 1.7 million visitors in 2019) and the National Archaeological Museum in Athens (with 608,000 visitors in 2019). These two museums account for 40 per cent of all public museum visits in the country. Museums in Attiki account for 2.7 million visits, 47 per cent of all public museums visits in the country.
Other areas with high museums visits include Thessaloniki with 591,000 visits (10 per cent of visits), the Dodecanese (including Rhodes) with 381,000 visits (6 per cent of visits), and Crete with 845,000 visits (14 per cent of visits); the site museums of Delphi had 275,000 visits, and Olympia 159,000 visits (together 7 per cent of visits).
Journal Summary: Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. It covers diverse disciplines and a wide variety of research methods relating to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also included. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the journal recognizes the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment. The journal consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.
The ancient city of Messene in the Peloponnese, below Mount Ithome, is becoming an important tourist attraction for this part of Messenia. Since 2014 it has been on the UNESCO tentative list for World Heritage. Numbers to the central part of the site have been monitored since 2012, and in 2019 were over 65,000. A small proportion of visitors visit the site museum: in 2014 there were over 9,000.
In 2014 the Minoan Palatial Centres of Knossos, Phaistos, Malia, Zakros, and Kydonia were placed on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. The description outlines their importance:
“The palatial centres played a vital part in the evolution, development and propagation of Minoan civilisation and marked the social transformation from the proto-urban communities of the Early Bronze Age to a multifaceted and hierarchical society. The political, social, economic and religious reorganisation, the transformation of private life, and the unprecedented cultural development that emerged from the gradual centralisation of power and the accumulation of wealth, were focussed on the palatial centres, each of which covered a large populated area of Crete.
The Minoan palatial centres stand out for their unique monumental architecture, with its complex internal organisation, which passed into ancient Greek memory as the “Labyrinth”. They constituted the administrative, economic and religious centres of a wider geographical area and housed multiple activities. They not only contained the residences of the rulers and the priesthood, but were home to a multitude of people: artisans (metalworkers, potters, weavers, etc.), merchants, scribes. Various events and contests were held around the palaces.”
By 2019 four of the palaces accounted for 1.1 million visits, with over 930,00 at Knossos itself. The Bronze Age sites of Mycenae and Tiryns in the Peloponnese account for just over 500,000 visitors (2019); they form part of a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Kato Zakro, the most remote of the four main palace centres, receives around 10,000 visitors a year. Mallia, next to a major resort, receives around 80,000 visitors a year, and Phaistos around 120,000.
These are particular challenges for Greece. Tourists from Germany, the UK, France and Italy were the main national groups bringing over 8 million visitors (in 2015). Tourists from the UK have yet to be given clearance to travel to Greece and that group is worth in the region of $750 million to the economy of Greece. Heritage tourism to a region like the Argolid is worth over $230 million to the local economy. Knossos on Crete is at the heart of one of the nation’s most popular destinations. Heritage in Greece is a major asset for the tourist economy and needs to be protected until tourist numbers can increase and generate the much needed income for the sector.
Journal Summary: The Journal of Travel Research (JTR) offers an international and multidisciplinary perspective on the best development and management practices by publishing research which enhances knowledge of important travel and tourism phenomena. JTR thereby contributes to the development of theory which enables improvements in tourism development policy and strategy; managerial practice; economic, social and environmental outcomes; and education and training programs. Given the multifaceted, multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder character of the tourism economy, this focus implies a concern for both the public and private sector spheres of interest as well as economic, socio-cultural, political, environmental, legal, technological, and demographic issues. Specific goals are to be international in scope with geographic diversity, to be multidisciplinary with diversity in research topics and methodologies, and to be germane to the needs of the travel and tourism industry and its stakeholders.
Journal Summary: The Journal of Tourism History covers all aspects of the evolution of tourism from earliest times to the postwar world. Articles address all regions of the globe and often adopt interdisciplinary approaches for exploring the past.
The Journal of Tourism History is particularly (though not exclusively) interested in promoting the study of areas and subjects underrepresented in current scholarship, work for example examining the history of tourism in Asia and Africa, as well as developments that took place before the nineteenth century.
In addition to peer-reviewed articles, Journal of Tourism History also features short articles about particularly useful archival collections, book reviews, review essays, and round table discussions that explore developing areas of tourism scholarship. It encourages further exploration of issues such as the vectors along which tourism spread, the evolution of specific types of ‘niche’ tourism, and the intersections of tourism history with the environment, medicine, politics, and more.
Journal summary: The Journal of Tourism Futures is a result of the growing awareness, in academia but especially in the professional world, of the increasing importance of tourism as a social phenomenon and as an economic sector. If we see that the impact on our lives, our culture and our economy is growing, it becomes urgent that we understand how things will evolve, which variables determine this development and where we should intervene. The goal of this initiative is to bring academic rigour to the study of the future of tourism.
The aims of the journal are:
• To inspire the tourism industry and academic community about the future of tourism
• The dissemination and formulation of the body of knowledge called tourism futures to practitioners, educators, researchers and students.
• To provide an international forum for a wide range of practical, theoretical and applied research within the field of tourism futures
• To represent a multi-disciplinary set of views on key and emerging issues in tourism futures.
• To include a cross-section of methodologies and viewpoints on research, including quantitative and qualitative approaches, case studies, and empirical and theoretical studies.
• To encourage greater understanding and linkage between the fields of study related to tourism futures.
• To publish new and original ideas.
The scope of the journal is:
• To serve and reflect the tremendous growth in research and discussions in tourism futures.
• To take a broad and multi-disciplinary approach to the future, whether it is short term or long term or economics or consumer behaviour. However, the journal will not comprise its position that all papers must be about the “future” and “tourism”.
• To encourage papers that stretch the current boundaries of the fields and develop new areas and new linkages with other relevant areas or combine or introduce new approaches and methodologies.
• To welcome creative and innovative approaches and papers that introduce new concepts and ideas.
Journal Summary: The Journal of Sustainable Tourism is a tourism journal which advances critical understanding of the relationships between tourism and sustainable development. It publishes theoretical, conceptual and empirical research that explores one or more of the economic, social, cultural, political, organisational or environmental aspects of the subject. Critical views and perspectives are encouraged, as well as new ideas and approaches in relation to the theory and practice linking tourism and sustainability. Contributions can be from all disciplinary perspectives, with inter-disciplinary work especially welcome. Holistic and integrative work is encouraged. All geographical areas are included, as are all forms of tourism, both mass and niche market. Papers can be especially useful if they contribute new understanding and insights not just to the field of sustainable tourism but also to the wider social sciences or between the social and natural sciences. Many contributions include significant empirical evidence, but some innovate in the field by providing new perspectives, approaches and insights through critical reviews.
The postponed Heritage Day 2019, arranged by the Heritage Alliance, was held at The Tower of London in February 2020. The Parliamentary Undersecretary of State, Nigel Huddlestone MP, gave his first speech on heritage and tourism.