The Attalids in Athens

The Stoa of Attalos © David Gill

I am looking forward to next in the seminar series from the American School of Classical Studies at Athens that will be looking at the Stoa of Attalos that forms the eastern edge of the Athenian Agora.

Complex heritage sites like the Athenian Agora and the Akropolis can present a series of narratives. The two-storeyed colonnade or stoa was dedicated by King Attalos II of Pergamon in north-west Anatolia (159–138 BC).

The Eponymous Heroes in the Agora © David Gill

The father of Attalos II, Attalos I (along with Ptolemy III Euergetes), was added to the representation of the ten heroes (The Eponymous Heroes) representing each of the Athenian tribes in 200 BC.

Retaining Wall of the Stoa of Eumenes © David Gill

Eumenes II (197–159 BC), the elder son of Attalos I, added a two-storeyed stoa on the southern slope of the Athenian Akropolis adjacent to the theatre of Dionysos. The rear of the stoa consists of a substantial retaining wall. Above and behind the stoa was the road that ran around the Akropolis and into the theatre of Dionysos. The effect of the colonnade would have mirrored the stoa at Pergamon that flanked the theatre on the slope of the royal city’s akropolis.

Monument of Eumenes II at the north-west corner of the Propylaia © David Gill

A major monument celebrating Eumenes II and dated after 178 BC was placed adjacent to the Pinakotheke at the main western entrance to the Athenian Akropolis. It in effect balances the temple of Athena Nike on the other side of the main access ramp. Eumenes was placed in a four-horse chariot. At the end of the 1st century BC the portrait of Eumenes was replaced by that of Agrippa.

Cutting for the Attalid monument at the north-east corner of the Parthenon © David Gill

The cutting for another Attalid monument, dedicated to Attalos II, can be found immediately to the north-east of the Parthenon. This also supported a monumental chariot; this referenced the chariot of Helios that appears in the most northerly of the metopes on the east side of the Parthenon.

To the east of the Parthenon itself were displayed a series of sculptures, seen by Pausanias (1.25.2), celebrating victories over the giants, the Amazons, the Persians and the Gauls. These had parallels in the sanctuary of Athena on the Pergamon akropolis.

The north-east corner of the Parthenon © David Gill

RSA Heritage Index: West Suffolk

The Norman Gate to the Abbey of St Edmund © David Gill

The 2020 RSA Heritage Index is now available. West Suffolk has been placed at 122nd in England: Ipswich is at 87th, and East Suffolk at 98th. West Suffolk’s strengths have been identified as Culture and Memories (69th) and Landscape and Natural Heritage (72nd). Surprisingly, given the importance of Bury St Edmunds, the Historic Built Environment is placed at 165th and Museums, Archives and Artefacts at 173rd.

RSA Heritage Index: Norwich and Norfolk

Norwich Castle © David Gill

The 2020 RSA Heritage Index is now available and Norwich is ranked as number 3 as a centre for heritage in England (up from number 9 in 2016). The city’s particular strengths are in Historic Built Environment (3rd up from 4th), Museums, Archives and Artefacts (7th up from 12th), and Culture and Memories (2nd down from 1st). There has also been a marked improvement for Parks and Open Space (28th up from 40th).

Norfolk as a county featured prominently. North Norfolk came 25th (up from 36 in 2016). Its main strengths included Historic Built Environment (33rd up from 71st), Landscape and Natural Heritage (22nd up from 27th), and Culture and Memories (75th up from 86th). There were also improvements in Museums, Archives and Artefacts (135th up from 141st) and Parks and Open Spaces (131st up from 137th).

Great Yarmouth did particularly well moving from 64th in 2016 to 38th. Its particular strengths were Industrial Heritage (22nd up from 40th), Parks and Open Spaces (56th up from 115th), and Historic Built Environment (85th up from 159th).

Kings Lynn and West Norfolk was ranked 54th (with a rise in Historic Built Environment, 39th), Breckland at 150th (with a rise in Historic Built Environment, 41st, and Museums, Archives and Artefacts, 117th), Broadland at 190th (with a strength in Landscape and Natural Heritage, 123rd), and South Norfolk at 219th (with a strength in Historic Built Environment, 63rd).

Across the region, Cambridge also featured in the top 10 at number 9 (up from 12th). Maldon moved from 40th to 37th (with moves in Historic Built Environment, 48th, and Museums, Archives and Artefacts, 125th), while Colchester remained unchanged at 140th (though with a move to 80th for Historic Built Environment). Ipswich fell from 70th in 2016 to 87th. East Suffolk was placed at 98th, and West Suffolk at 122nd.

Excavating the Athenian Agora: the temple of Hephaistos

Temple of Hephaistos, the Athenian Agora © David Gill

John Camp has given another virtual seminar from the Athenian agora. The subject this time was the temple of Hephaistos that stands on the low hill overlooking the agora. He broke the temple down into its architectural elements from its foundations to the roof. His explanation of the proportions of the Doric order showed how a reconstruction can be made from the smallest of architectural fragments. Camp explained how the internal structure of the temple had been reorientated when the building had been converted into a Christian church. There was a reminder that the modern planting was informed by the excavated ‘plant pots’ around the temple.

The subsequent questions include a discussion of the date as well as the use pf polychromy.

These in situ seminars do so much to explain architectural remains.

Landguard Heritage Landscape

WW2 defences at Landguard © David Gill

The Victorian Landguard Fort stands in the middle of rich heritage landscape that marks the defence of this strategic area around (and opposite) the port of Harwich during the Second World War.

In the foreground is the base for mounting a searchlight, and behind it a pillbox. To the rear of the image, on the perimeter of the fort, are the two control towers located at Darrell’s Battery.

These features form part of the Landguard Nature Reserve.

WW2 defences at Landguard © David Gill

For details of WW2 archaeology in Suffolk.

Sector knowledge: Tourism, Culture & Communication

Journal Summary: Tourism, Culture & Communication is the longest established international refereed journal that is dedicated to the cultural dimensions of tourism. It covers diverse disciplines and a wide variety of research methods relating to the tourism and hospitality domain. Tourism, Culture & Communication provides readers with multidisciplinary perspectives that consider topics and fields extending beyond national and indigenous cultures as they are traditionally understood and recognized. Coverage may extend to issues such as cultural dimensions of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), gender and tourism, managing tourists with disabilities, sport tourism, or age-specific tourism. Contributions that draw upon the communications literature to explain the tourism phenomenon are also included. Beyond the focus on culture and communications, the journal recognizes the important interrelationships with economies, society, politics, and the environment. The journal consists of main articles, major thematic reviews, position papers on theory and practice, and substantive case studies. A reports section covers specific initiatives and projects, “hot topics,” work-in-progress, and critical reviews.

Publisher: Cognizant Communication

Website: https://cognizantcommunication.com/publication/tourism-culture-communication/

Access: Subscription; some open access

Journal Type: Academic peer reviewed

Sector knowledge: Time & Society

Journal Summary: Time & Society publishes articles, reviews, and scholarly comment that make original contributions to understandings of the relationships between time, temporality, and social life. It covers research across the arts, humanities, and social sciences (including interfaces with the sciences). It is interested in multi- and inter- disciplinary work which seeks to bring different approaches, methods, theories, and/or empirical work into conversation. Critiques of, and proposals for, time-related aspects of public, social, scientific, economic, environmental, and organisational policies are also of interest. The Letters to the Editor section provides a place for the informal exchange of topical ideas, provocations and musings related to the above. Time & Society strives to be international in scope, and independent of the interests of particular schools or directions of research, or particular political or narrow disciplinary objectives.

Publisher: Sage

Website: https://journals.sagepub.com/home/tas

Access: Subscription; some open access

Journal Type: Academic peer reviewed

Sector knowledge: Time & Mind – The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture

Journal Summary: Time & Mind is interested in presenting new perspectives on, and approaches to, landscape, monuments, people and culture. The journal features scholarly work addressing cognitive aspects of cross-related disciplines such as archaeology, anthropology, folklore, sociology and psychology that can shape our understanding of archaeological sites, landscapes and worldviews. Time & Mind explores such diverse topics as archaeoastronomy, ecopsychology, sensory engagements with landscapes and monuments, and symbolic, religious and ritual landscapes in the past and present. It also explores how images of the past are created in, and shape, contemporary society through engagement with place.

Publisher: Routledge

Website: https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rtam20/current

Access: Subscription; some open access

Journal Type: Academic peer reviewed

Sector knowledge: The Historic Environment – Policy & Practice

Journal Summary: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice is a journal for all those that investigate, conserve and manage the historic environment.  The journal was established in association with the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists.
The journal contains papers relevant to archaeological practitioners, and those involved in building conservation – contractors, consultants, curators, researchers, students and fieldworkers – both professional and voluntary. Content cuts across organisational divisions to identify themes which are of concern and interest to all practitioners.
The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice demonstrates best practice and appropriate methods, and the enhancement of technical and professional skills. The journal relates these skills to topical issues and features the political, legal, economic, cultural, environmental, social and educational contexts, and the academic frameworks, in which those involved in the historic environment work.

The scope includes:

  • Development of skills and competence in archaeology and conservation
  • Best practice approaches to cultural resource management
  • New techniques in the investigation of ancient and recent archaeological sites, landscapes and buildings
  • The relationship between historic sites and past and future environmental change

Publisher: Routledge

Website: https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/yhen20/current

Access: Subscription; some open access

Journal Type: Academic peer reviewed

Sector knowledge: The George Wright Forum (archived journal)

Journal Summary: From 1981 through until 2018, the George Wright Society published The George Wright Forum, an interdisciplinary journal that explored innovative thinking and offered enduring perspectives on critical issues across the whole spectrum of place-based heritage management and stewardship. The George Wright Forum published insights from virtually every field in cultural and natural resources related to parks, protected areas, and cultural sites. You can download free of charge every paper ever published in The George Wright Forum from our publications archive website: http://www.georgewright.org/forum_issues.

Publisher: George Wright Society

Website: https://www.georgewrightsociety.org/georgewrightforum

Access: Open access

Journal Type: Academic peer reviewed